**Suspects and Witnesses solution kickstart** – Ada baked some cookies for her birthday party where she invited NN guests, labeled 11 to NN. When all the guests have arrived and the party is about to start, something terrible has happened — someone stole the cookies!

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## [Solution] Suspects and Witnesses solution kickstart

Ada puts on her detective hat and starts questioning her guests. She gathered MM witness statements of the form: *Guest x: “Guest y did not steal the cookies.”*

Ada knows that, if a guest is innocent (did not steal a cookie), then all their witness statements must be true. Note that Ada does not know whether any statement made by a cookie stealer is correct.

Lastly, Ada has an informant who told her there can be at most KK cookie stealers. With this information, can you help Ada find out the number of guests who can be proved to be innocent?

Note that it is possible that no guest actually stole the cookies, and Ada simply forgot how many cookies she baked.

### Input

The first line of the input gives the number of test cases, TT. TT test cases follow.

The first line of each test case contains three integers NN, MM, and KK: the number of guests, the number of witness statements, and the maximum number of cookie stealers, respectively.

The next MM lines describe the witness statements. The ii-th line contains two integers AiAi and BiBi, which means the witness statement *Guest AiAi: “Guest BiBi did not steal the cookies.”*

## [Solution] Suspects and Witnesses solution kickstart

For each test case, output one line containing `Case #xx: yy`

, where xx is the test case number (starting from 1) and yy is the number of guests that can be proved to be innocent.

### Limits

Time limit: 40 seconds.

Memory limit: 1 GB.

1≤T≤1001≤T≤100.

2≤N≤1052≤N≤105.

1≤M≤1051≤M≤105.

1≤Ai≤N1≤Ai≤N, for all ii.

1≤Bi≤N1≤Bi≤N, for all ii.

Ai≠BiAi≠Bi, for all ii.

(Ai,Bi)≠(Aj,Bj)(Ai,Bi)≠(Aj,Bj), for all i≠ji≠j.

#### Test Set 1

K=1K=1.

#### Test Set 2

1≤K≤201≤K≤20.

## [Solution] Suspects and Witnesses solution kickstart

*Note: there are additional samples that are not run on submissions down below.*

2 3 2 1 1 2 2 3 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1

Case #1: 2 Case #2: 3

In Sample Case #1, there are N=3N=3 guests, M=2M=2 witness statements and at most K=1K=1 cookie stealer.

The witness statements are:

- Guest 11: Guest 22 did not steal the cookies.
- Guest 22: Guest 33 did not steal the cookies.

Now we consider all possible arrangements on whether each guest is a cookie stealer.

Guest 1 | Guest 2 | Guest 3 | Possible? | |
---|---|---|---|---|

Scenario #1 | Innocent | Innocent | Innocent | YES |

Scenario #2 | CS | Innocent | Innocent | YES |

Scenario #3 | Innocent | CS | Innocent | NO |

Scenario #4 | Innocent | Innocent | CS | NO |

These are all the scenarios where there is at most K=1K=1 cookie stealer (CS). Scenario #3 is impossible because Guest 1 is innocent and states that Guest 2 is innocent, but Guest 2 turns out to be the cookie stealer. Same reasoning for scenario #4.

For the remaining scenarios, we see that Guest 2 and 3 are always innocent, so the answer is 22.

## [Solution] Suspects and Witnesses solution kickstart

*The following additional sample fits the limits of Test Set 2. It will not be run against your submitted solutions.*

2 3 2 2 1 2 2 3 3 3 2 1 2 2 3 3 2

Case #1: 1 Case #2: 2