[Solution] ICPC Balloons solution codeforces

ICPC Balloons solution codeforces – In an ICPC contest, balloons are distributed as follows:

  • Whenever a team solves a problem, that team gets a balloon.
  • The first team to solve a problem gets an additional balloon.

Table of Contents

[Solution] ICPC Balloons solution codeforces

A contest has 26 problems, labelled 𝖠A, 𝖡B, 𝖢C, …, 𝖹Z. You are given the order of solved problems in the contest, denoted as a string 𝑠s, where the 𝑖i-th character indicates that the problem 𝑠𝑖si has been solved by some team. No team will solve the same problem twice.Determine the total number of balloons that the teams recieved. Note that some problems may be solved by none of the teams.

Input

The first line of the input contains an integer 𝑡t (1≤𝑡≤1001≤t≤100) — the number of testcases.

The first line of each test case contains an integer 𝑛n (1≤𝑛≤501≤n≤50) — the length of the string.

The second line of each test case contains a string 𝑠s of length 𝑛n consisting of uppercase English letters, denoting the order of solved problems.

[Solution] ICPC Balloons solution codeforces

For each test case, output a single integer — the total number of balloons that the teams received.

Example
input

Copy
6
3
ABA
1
A
3
ORZ
5
BAAAA
4
BKPT
10
CODEFORCES
output

Copy
5
2
6
7
8
17

[Solution] ICPC Balloons solution codeforces

In the first test case, 55 balloons are given out:

  • Problem 𝖠A is solved. That team receives 22 balloons: one because they solved the problem, an an additional one because they are the first team to solve problem 𝖠A.
  • Problem 𝖡B is solved. That team receives 22 balloons: one because they solved the problem, an an additional one because they are the first team to solve problem 𝖡B.
  • Problem 𝖠A is solved. That team receives only 11 balloon, because they solved the problem. Note that they don’t get an additional balloon because they are not the first team to solve problem 𝖠A.

The total number of balloons given out is 2+2+1=52+2+1=5.In the second test case, there is only one problem solved. The team who solved it receives 22 balloons: one because they solved the problem, an an additional one because they are the first team to solve problem 𝖠A.

 

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