An emergency is that unbalanced state of any country when there is an apprehension of some kind of threat, external or internal to the country. In the Indian Constitution, some special powers have been given to the President of the country, which is exercised by the President in the event of failure of the political or constitutional system of the whole country or any state.
Long Essay on Emergency in India
Today we all will know about some important facts related to Emergency in India through this essay.
Emergency in India: Cause and Effect – 1100 Word Essay
All those important points related to the country, state and their citizens have been mentioned in the Indian Constitution, by which India has got the status of a democratic nation. Some of these points mentioned in the constitution are about the ways to deal with the administrative failures in the country or the state. Which the President of India takes stock of the situation and uses it only when it seems very necessary. In case of emergency, the President does not need to consult anyone. The President can declare emergency in the whole country or in any one state according to the powers given in the constitution.
What is an emergency? (What is the Emergency?)
Emergency is that unbalanced situation of the whole country or any state in which the constitutional and administrative balance is disturbed. In the Constitution of India, it has been written about some of the powers of the President, when the President can exercise what kind of power, one of those powers is that of emergency. When there is a situation of famine, invasion of foreign countries or internal administrative disorder etc. on the whole country or any state, then at that time all the political and administrative powers of that region go into the hands of the President.
What are the emergency provisions and conditions? (What are the Emergency provisions and situations?)
Under Article 352, Article 356 and Article 360 of the Constitution of India, the situations of emergency in India and the important facts related to them have been well written. According to these articles there are three situations of emergency-
- National Emergency – Article 352 (National Emergency – Article 352)
National emergency is imposed on the advice of the President’s cabinet in the event of war, famine, external aggression or failure of internal security in the country. In the event of a national emergency, all authority goes to the government. During this, almost all the rights of citizens are taken away except Article 20 and Article 21.
- President’s rule or state emergency – Article 356 (President Rule or State Emergency – Article 356)
President’s rule or State Emergency, as mentioned under Article 356 of the Indian Constitution, is imposed by the President of the country due to political or constitutional failure in a state. During state emergency, the center takes over all other powers except the judicial powers of that state. The time limit of President’s rule has been limited to a minimum of 2 months and a maximum of 3 years.
- Economic Emergency – Article 360 (Economic Emergency – Article 360)
The provision of economic emergency in the country has been made in Article 360 of the Constitution, under which the President applies in the event of economic crisis, bankruptcy of the government etc. During this emergency, the government’s suzerainty over the property etc. of the citizens is established. This emergency has not been used till now in the history of India.
How many times emergency was imposed in India? (Emergency in India how many times?)
Till now a total of three times emergency has been imposed in India in which National Emergency was imposed under Article 352 in the years 1962, 1971 and 1975.
- Emergency of 1962
In 1962, the first and longest emergency was imposed. This emergency was imposed from 1962 to 1968. The main reason for this emergency was the invasion of India by China and Pakistan.
- Emergency of 1971
In the year 1971 also, the reason for the national emergency was the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
- Emergency of 1975
The main reason for the imposition of national emergency in the year 1975 was the failure of internal arrangements. This emergency came out as the most controversial declaration. After much criticism, it was canceled in 1977 and the court declared the emergency declaration as an unfair act.
Who imposed emergency in India in 1975? (Who Imposed Emergency in 1975 in India)
The National Emergency of 1975 in India was declared by former President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed on the advice of the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. Opposition leader Raj Narayan strongly opposed this emergency. After some time the rest of the public also took a deep sleep of this emergency. During this time, under the leadership of Sanjay Gandhi, people were caught and forced to undergo sterilization all over the country. Due to which there was a lot of resentment among the entire public and Indira Gandhi had to bear the brunt of this in her next Lok Sabha elections.
Date of Emergency in India (The Emergency Date in India)
So far three emergencies have been implemented in India, whose dates are as follows-
- 26 October 1962
- 3 December 1971
- 25 June 1975
Why was emergency declared in India in 1975? (Why was Emergency declared in India in 1975/National Emergency in India 1975)
In the 1971 Lok Sabha elections, Indira Gandhi defeated Raj Narayan by a huge margin. Raj Narayan challenged the election results in the High Court after Indira Gandhi remained prime minister for four years. Raj Narayan had accused Indira Gandhi of spending more than a certain limit in elections and misusing government rules.
After investigation, the court accepted the allegations of Raj Narayan and on June 12, 1975, Judge Jagmohanlal Sinha of Allahabad High Court dismissed Indira Gandhi from the post for six years. A total of 14 charges were proved against Indira Gandhi but Indira Gandhi rejected the court’s decision. Raj Narayan made a lot of protests to get Indira Gandhi to resign, but Indira got the ordinance passed on 25 June 1975 and got the Emergency imposed by the then President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed.
Causes and effects of emergencyEffect and Reason for Emergency in India)
Emergency comes into force in the country or state only when such unforeseen circumstances arise in which the local administration is unable to deal with the current situation. The main causes of emergency are external aggression, famine, failure of internal system or economic recession. When emergency is imposed, it directly affects the citizens there. During emergency, the fundamental rights of citizens are violated, at that time only the fundamental rights of Article 20 and 21 are valid.
It is very difficult for the government of any country to declare an emergency. Generally no government supports emergency. But due to some odd circumstances, it becomes necessary for the governments to take this decision from time to time. Due to the imposition of emergency, all the activities of the country come to a halt. The rate of development of the country also slows down due to which the country lags behind some years in economic matters.
FAQs: Frequently Asked Questions
Answer – The first emergency in India was imposed on 26 October 1962.
Answer – Emergency is imposed on the whole country or any state at the time of external or internal calamity.
Answer – Emergency has been mentioned in Article 352, 356 and 360.
Answer – The last emergency was imposed in India between 1975 and 1977.